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Breastfeeding is the best nutrition for healthy growth and development of babies. Good maternal nutrition helps sustain an adequate supply and quality of breast milk. Unnecessary introduction of bottle-feeding, partially or fully, or of other complementary foods and drinks may have a negative impact on breastfeeding, which may be irreversible. Consult your doctor and consider the social and financial implications before deciding to use breast milk substitutes or if you have difficulty breastfeeding. Follow usage, preparation and storage instructions of breast milk substitutes or of other complementary foods and drinks carefully as improper or unnecessary use may pose a health hazard.
Learn about micronutrients

"Wait, what are Micronutrients?"

Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals needed in the human body for health, development and growth. There are about 90 different micronutrients necessary for the human body throughout life, and they are so-called as our body only needs them in miniscule amounts.

Roles of micronutrients

Micronutrients are an essential component of life, and are vital to the regular functioning of all your body’s systems. A lack of some of these micronutrients may impact your child’s immune system and make them more susceptible to infections and illnesses. Its other roles include helping in cell division, as well as being part of cellular activities including heart function, metabolism and nervous system function.


Micronutrients are substances the body needs in very small amounts. But a shortage may impact health.


Micronutrients participate in building cells and tissues


Micronutrients play an important role in cellular activities such as heart function, metabolism and nervous system function


Micronutrients contribute to building the body's immune system

Roles of Zinc

Zinc is an essential micronutrient. When a child does not have adequate zinc intake, it increases the risk of a child suffering from conditions such as diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria1

The role it plays in bodily function include:


Helping with growth (e.g. height)


Physical development


Supporting the child’s natural defences

Possible symptoms of children suffering from zinc deficiencies include:

Zinc deficiency


Reduced weight & height among peers


Susceptibility to infections


Susceptibility to infections

To avoid deficiencies, children should eat foods rich in zinc. Take note that these foods should not be overcooked as its zinc content can be reduced by up to half. These foods include: 

✓ Shellfish such as crab, shrimp and lobster (allergens may be present) 

✓ Brown mushrooms 

✓ Meat (beef, lamb, pork and chicken) 

✓ Fish (allergens may be present)


Roles of Vitamin A

Vitamin A is another essential micronutrient. Inadequate intake of Vitamin A may lead to disorders such as anaemia and weakened host resistance to infection. A chronically deficient dietary intake of vitamin A may coexist with severe infections such as measles, and frequent infections causing diarrhoea and respiratory diseases. . A deficiency in Vitamin A can also lead to xerophthalmia, the leading cause of preventable blindness in children2.


The role it plays in bodily function include:


Contributing to the normal function of the body’s immune system


Functioning of the eye (e.g. providing an essential component of retinal pigment that’s necessary for vision)


Maintaining normal skin and mucous membrane

To avoid deficiencies, give your child foods rich in Vitamin A, which is absorbed along with fat in the diet. Foods rich in Vitamin A include:

✓ Dark leafy green vegetables 
✓ Lettuce 
✓ Carrots 
✓ Papaya 
✓ Watermelon 
✓ Cantaloupe 
✓ Tomatoes 
✓ Oranges 
✓ Fish 
✓ Eggs


Roles of Iron

Iron is an important component of red blood cells and maintains normal immune system function in humans. It is one of the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world and is especially evident in children and women of developing nations3.


The role it plays in bodily function include:


Contributes to normal cognitive function


Producing myoglobin, the protein that helps supply oxygen to muscle, contributing to normal energy production

Possible symptoms of children suffering from iron deficiencies include:

Children with iron deficiency


Shortness of breath, dizziness


Decreased resistance to infections


Reduced ability for physical activity, general fatigue

To avoid deficiencies, it is important to give your child foods that are rich in iron, to help support development and absorption. These foods include:

✓ Red meat 
✓ Pork 
✓ Seafood (including fish) 
✓ Beans 
✓ Dark green leafy vegetables 
✓ Eggs 
✓ Nuts 
✓ Dark chocolate and cocoa powder


Roles of Iodine

Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the normal and healthy functioning of the thyroid. It also helps in energy metabolism, and promotes energy production and growth. Deficiency of iodine is one of the causes of impaired cognitive development in children4.


The role it plays in bodily function include:


Contributing to normal cognitive function


Helping with energy metabolism


Being essential for thyroid hormone synthesis

Possible symptoms of children suffering from severe iodine deficiencies include:

Severe iodine deficiency


For neonate5. Neonatal hypothyroidism. Endemic mental retardation.


For child and adolescent5. Impaired mental function. Retarded physical development

Roles of Vitamin C

The role it plays in bodily function include:

Vitamin C enhances iron absorption and plays a role in the body’s immune function. Severe deficiency can cause scurvy, which is characterised by tenderness of the limbs, haemorrhage around erupting teeth, anaemia etc6.


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