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Here's how to ease constipation

Constipation is the condition in which an individual has reduced frequency of bowel movements, or finds difficulty in having bowel movements or clearing the bowels. It is a relatively common problem in children of all ages, although it usually happens during the breastfeeding age, toilet training period and school-going age.

Causes of constipation

There are many causes of constipation, including diet, medications, activity, diseases and disorders. Children can also suffer from intentional stool retention, which is constipation due to stress when they’re not ready for toilet training.

water and fibre

Insufficient water and fibre – A diet that includes an excessive intake of soft drinks, with insufficient drinking water, fruits, and vegetables


Taking some medication – Antipyretics, analgesics, cough medicine, diarrhoea medicine could be a cause of dry stools and difficult bowel movements

anal fissure

Anal fissure – Difficult and painful bowel movements


Emotional disorders – Being in a stressful home or family atmosphere, with divorced parents, a new baby, etc.


Diseases – Development of disorders related to the colon, rectum, nervous system, blood, etc.


Inactivity – That causes inactive peristalsis

Intentional stool retention

Some children under the age of 5 cannot control their faecal excretion reflux, or have a fear of sitting on the toilet which could cause difficult bowel movements. As such, they choose to intentionally hold back their stool, a habit that can cause constipation.

step 1

Your child refuses to go to the toilet

step 2

This causes anal muscle spasms and squeezed buttock muscles

step 3

As a result, faeces is pushed up to the rectum valve

step 4

In turn, this causes constipation in your child

step 5

Leading to colon dilation and decreased rectal sensitivity

step 6

This results in prolonged faecal cumulation, contributing to constipation


Constipation is generally difficult to define, as there are no clear indications of what is ‘normal’ in terms of the frequency of bowel movements, and symptoms may vary from child to child. Here are some signs if you’re concerned that your child could be suffering from constipation.

anal fissure

Difficult and infrequent bowel movements

refuse toilet

Refusal to go to the toilet


Underwear is sometimes unknowingly soiled

anal pain

Experiences anal pain, has uncontrolled bowel movements or blood in stool


Stool looks solid, lumpy, or generally abnormal

poor appetite

Child has abdominal pain and a poor appetite

48hrs meconium

Infant passes meconium after 48 hours or more at birth

Home fixes

Not all constipation incidents need medical attention. Before you rush to your medical practitioner, you may want to try these tips at home to ease the situation.

tummy rub


Massage your child’s tummy with warm hands using gentle pressure

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Apples, pears and prunes are great for making bowel movements smoother



Make sure your child is drinking enough water throughout the day



Bran flakes, oatmeal, brown rice, and beans can help to soften stools



This can help to relax the anal muscles and help to pass the stool



Use a footstool to ensure that the feet are properly supported

The Bristol stool scale

The Bristol stool scale is a good indication of whether or not your child is suffering from constipation, as normal faeces should be the texture of Types 4 to 6, rather than dry, lumpy pieces in Types 1 to 3.

Physical constipation

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In hard lumps or shaped like nuts

Functional constipation

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Sausage-shaped or lumpy stools

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Like a sausage but with many cracks on the surface

Normal bowel movements

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Like a sausage or snake, smooth & soft

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Soft blobs with clear cut edges

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Fluffy pieces with ragged edges or mushy stools


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Watery with no solid pieces or entirely liquid

Effects of prolonged constipation

If your child has experienced this condition for a prolonged period, it would be wise to call your doctor. Do seek medical attention especially if your child is suffering from any of these symptoms.

colon dilation

Colon dilation (where the colon is unnaturally extended)


Rectocele (or rectum prolapse)

poor appetite (1)

Poor appetite of your child

weight gain

Slow weight gain in your child

abdominal pain

Persistent abdominal pain